Final Year ECE Project Abstracts

20080819_0095 (Large) Here’s my share of help to those who are just starting to select either their Major or Mini Projects from Electronics and Communication Engineering. I am posting the abstracts of some of my friends’ projects. Look’em up and see if are interested in any of those fields. There are mainly three to four fields in ECE.

  1. Embedded Systems
  2. VLSI - Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit Technology (Mainly Designing in VHDL or Verilog)
  3. DSP – Digital Signal Processing
  4. DIP – Digital Image Processing

and such. First choose a field in which your interest lies, then work on your project. Nobody does it for you. You’ll have to work it out all by yourself. Its a waste of Money and time if you go to Private Organizations to do your work. You’ll learn many things, by doing the projects all by yourselves. Be sure to decide well.

Here are the abstracts to some of them.

1. Finger Print Security

Personal Safes are revolutionary locking storage cases that open with just the touch of your finger. These products are designed as secure storage for medications, jewelry, weapons, documents, and other valuable or potentially harmful items.These utilize fingerprint recognition technology to allow access to only those whose fingerprints you choose. It contains all the necessary electronics to allow you to store, delete, and verify fingerprints with just the touch of a button. Stored fingerprints are retained even in the event of complete power failure or battery drain.These eliminates the need for keeping track of keys or remembering a combination password, or PIN. It can only be opened when an authorized user is present, since there are no keys or combinations to be copied or stolen, or locks that can be picked.
In this project the fingerprint module from Miaxis Biometrics is used. It can store up to 750 finger prints on its own memory. It can be controlled through its serial port.
The microcontroller AT89S52 interact with the module. You can Add a fingerprint, Delete a fingerprint and Identify the fingerprint.
To add a fingerprint, just show the finger on the module and press the ADD key. Now the microcontroller will send the ADD command to the module and the module will add it into the memory. To delete the finger follow the same as above.
To identify the finger, press the Identify button and if the finger matches then the Relay is complemented. Also the fingerprint ID is displayed over the LCD display.


Security is one of the most important concerns for everybody. Everybody wants to secure their home, offices, industry from unauthorized persons. To make this task an easy, this is one of the cheap and best system.

This project consists of LCD which shows that whether the person entered is authorized or not. The user, who wants to enter into the room or office, has to enter a pin or password through keypad and if the entered password is correct the door will open. The verification of password is done by using microcontroller which stores all authorized passwords and accordingly instructs the other peripherals i.e. door (using stepper motor) to open. If the password entered is wrong a beep or a buzzer will be ON and LED will glow. As well as the persons details such as name, id can be shown on display i.e. LCD.

The components uses in this project are AT89S52 Micro controller, LCD and a normal telephone keypad. The system is fully controlled by the 8 bit microcontroller AT89s52. The password is stored in memory of that we can change it at anytime. The software which is used as a backenend is Embedded C “KIEL uvision”.


In embedded system we have often come across the system employing different types of sensors built using single technology.

Here in this multi sensor implementation system we want to expose ourselves to the way a sensor built and how to use them for different applications. we have chosen simple and cost effective IR technology for this purpose.

System consists of three photos sensors arranged as reflective sensor, slot sensors and single photo diode. Microcontroller AT89S52 is used to take inputs from sensor unit produce corresponding outputs.

Our selections involves an led, buzzer and a relay for corresponding sensors. Microcontroller used in AT895S2 which taken if inputs from sensor and switches corresponding outputs. Software developed is in embedded C.


Did you ever met with a station, where you went to a station to receive/leave a friend and you don’t know which train will come to that platform,at what timethat particular train will leave the platform.And if youwant to know particular detail you have to stand in long queue which is a headache .This project solves our problem.

This project ddeals with providing you with the above kind of Information .It displays each details of particular train,in the sense train name, train number, arrival, departure, platform number etc on large size display system such as LCD,S.You can store ass many as you want, and any person can know the details by just looking at the display instead of standing in queues and wasting our time in just kowing small details.

This display used may vary according to the use requirement and needs.


In most houses, water is pumped up to the overhead tank located on the roof from the ground. People generally switch on the pump when their taps go dry and switch off the pump when the overhead tank starts overflowing. This results in the unnecessary wastage and sometimes non-availability of water in the case of emergency.

“Automatic Water Level Monitoring System” presented here makes this system automatic, i.e. it switches on the pump when the water level in the overhead tank goes low and switches it off as soon as the water level reaches a pre-determined level.

This project is an 8051 microcontroller based in which microcontroller is interfaced with an LCD to display the water level in the tank and the status of motor. Transistors are used to determine the water level in the tank. The circuit is based on 3 transistor switches. Each transistor is switched on, when its base is supplied with current through the water through the electrode probes. The microcontroller programmed by using KEIL C cross Compiler.

We can implement this project at house hold level, industrial level etc For example; we can implement this project in reservoirs.


The aim of this project is to interface 4x16 LCD, 4x4 Matrix Keypad, Motor and Power Supply with 8051 Microcontroller and provide a simple low-cost electronically operationlised door.

A keyless electronic combination lock is adaptable for placement on a door, and operates independently of any other locks and without a central control system. The lock has an 8051 Microcontroller, 4x4 matrix keypad for entering combinations, motor to move the door, 4x16 LCD to display the process of Electronic Code Lock.


In India you must have seen many places where Street Lights will be ON whether its day time or night or worst is the case when it will be ON for 24 hours. This wastes lots off electricity and to save energy is one of the most important tasks nowadays where our resources are being finished.

This project consists of an RTC which is responsible for generating time. We will write the program such that depending on the time the light will be ON or OFF.

In place of RTC we can use LDR which will see the brightness of the outer atmosphere and depending on this the light will be ON or OFF.


  • Electricity is one of the most important and useful part of our life.
  • Nowadays most of scientists are developing electrical goods which require less power and developing ways to reduce its wastage .This wastage will cause a lot to further generations.
  • This project also deals with the saving of light , by using it efficiently at right time.
  • This project runs on a simple clock and according to the present time the light will turn OFF and ON.The clock will run continuously and the controller will continuously monitor the output of clock and according to the predefined time the light or LED will be turned OFF or ON.


    The I2C stands for Inter Integrated circuit helps in establishing short distance communication between ICs. The communication takes place in accordance with the Philips I2C bus protocol.

    In today’s highly complex circuits, I2C plays a major role in reducing the interconnection complexity between the ICs.

    I2C bus is a 2 wire bi-directional serial bus. One wire is for data transmission named as Serial data bus (SDA) and the other for clock signal transmission (SCL). These carry information between the devices connected to the bus.

    I2C is easy to use to link multiple devices together since it has built in addressing scheme.

    Our project aim involves the design of both master and slave cores. The master core is responsible for initiating the communication on the bus. The slave core is the device that has been addressed by the master in order to establish effective communication. Each slave has a unique address and responds only after it has verified the address sent by the master. I2C is a true multi master bus; this means that more than one master can attempt to control the bus at the same time without corrupting the message. This is achieved by a technique known as arbitration, where if more than one master simultaneously tries to control the bus, only one is allowed to do so and the message is not corrupted.

    Another concept known as clock synchronization is used in order to synchronize clock signals of two or more devices. It is performed using the wired-AND connection of I2C interface to SCL line. Devices with shorter LOW periods enter a HIGH wait-state during this time.

    The RTL code for the design has been done using Verilog HDL. The functional verification has been done using ModelSim and the code has been synthesized using Xilinx ISE. This has been finally implemented onto a FPGA Spartan IIE kit.


    The main objective of the project is to interface an LCD with microcontroller and display the moving message on to the LCD. The software used to program is keil compiler.

    Very good advertising results are obtained from these unique displays with latest technology. You can change the message as often as you want with ordinary computer keyboard without any prior experience of any kind LCDs available in various sizes and are also made to custom requirements.

    Moving message on LCD are ideal for all type of commercial establishments like Hotels, Restaurants, Retail Shops, Banks, Airports, Clinics, Hospitals and other such places to get maximum attention of people. These displays attract customers to watch the display with curiosity and your scrolling message also is conveyed simultaneously.


    Voltage logger is the device used to record voltage. Voltage Logger is the easiest to use tool built to record data on-site and download it onto your computer for analysis. For the user who is monitoring a machine load or voltage line, profiling a process loop or monitoring temperature, it's the perfect tool to give you the information when you need it. Simply connect the logger to the signal to be recorded and press the button to begin recording. When the session is complete press the button.

    Voltage Logger operates in three modes: Logging, Standby, and off. In the Logging mode,the logger records information in memory; in the Standby mode, it retains the recorded information for transfer to a computer; in the off mode, the memory is cleared. However, if the Voltage Logger is turned off by mistake, the cleared data can be easily recovered.

    The main advantage of the Voltage Logger is its ability to perform a wide variety of recording tasks with high resolution and accuracy without the need for user setup. It achieves this by means of automatic scaling and Time Extension Recording (TXR) along with a flexible input design.


    The encoder and decoder, which are designed in this project, are useful in error detection and correction of digital data. Many error detection and correction standards employ cyclic codes like Golay codes because of their special properties that makes it easier to encode and decode these codes in an efficient manner. The error correction aspect of these codes is very important in areas like Satellite Communication where it is often impossible to retransmit the information if an error is detected in the received information. Golay Codes are widely used in many Digital Error Control Applications.

    In this project a practical implementation of the Encoders and Decoders is used to generate these codes and retrieve information from coded data. The main emphasis of the project is on the Golay encoder & decoder, which are designed entirely without a Clock (asynchronous operation).

    The error correction capabilities of the Golay (23,12) codes are studied. A digital block to simulate the realistic data communication channel is used to study error detection and correction capabilities of these codes.The Golay Code decoder is implemented in multiple stages to reduce complexity in implementation.

    The Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is used to model these Encoders and Decoders. ModelSim and Xilinx are used for doing simulations to check functionality.



    Home automation (also called domotics) is a field within building automation,specialixing in the specigic automation requirements of private homes and in the application of automation technique for the comfort and security of its residents.

    Athough many techniques used in building automation(such as light and climate control ,control of doors and window shutters ,security and surveillance systems,etc.)are also used in home automation, additional functions in home automation can include the control of multimedia home entertainment systems,automatic plant watering and pet feeding,automatic sences for dinners and parties,and more user friendly control interface.When home automation is installed during construction of new home,usually control wires are added before the dry wall is installed.these control wires run to a micro controller,which will then control the encironment.

    Implementation methodology:

    Wireless communication of various machines and devices in mobile networks is a fast growing business and application area in industry, maintenance business,customer service,security and banking areas.This paper presents design and implementation of remote conrol system by means of GSM cellular communication network. The design integrates the to be controlled, the micro controller .and GSM module so that it can be used for a wide range of applications.

    An AVR microcontroller is used to control the home appliances and it will communicate to the GSM modem through the serial port of controller. Most of the home appliances are connected to AC mains so, a special care is to be taken to switch the appliances.


    It is designed and developed based on microprocessor technology for Konkurs Missile Test Equipment (KMTE) assembled on a PCB module mounted on a bracket, in turn to be fitted on front panel PCB frame of test equipment.

    Charger is intended to charge Ni-Cd/Ni-Al battery pack capacity of 1.8AH/2.2AH respectively. It shall operate on AC mains power of 230V AC at 50Hz with specified variation. The regulated power supply of charger works on SMPS and converts incoming AC voltages to DC(maximum 60V) for charging the battery. Charging is done in two modes. Normal mode and boost mode. At the end of normal/boost charge, the charges automatically charge over to the trickle mode. Mode of changing is switch selectable and the charging mode can be indicated LEDs which are connected on D-type connector.

    The charge is based on a PIC16F73 micro controller. The micro controller provides desired features of time tracking, detection of negative voltage shift to monitor the charging process. The input AC voltage is passed through the input fuse and line filter, followed by bridge rectifier. The resultant DC voltage is fed to the transformer with the separate taps for charger circuit and micro controller circuit. Output of the charge is maintained at nominal voltage of 60V DC. Required sense lines and control lines are provided between the charger circuit and microprocessor circuit. The status of charging is detected using micro controller provision is available for selection of normal boost charge. LED can be connected to the connector for charge indicator. Selection provision shall also be made for selection in battery type.

    On power ON, the AC current passes through the fuse and the filter, this filter out any noise or spikes. After the filter passes through the rectifier which converts AC to DC. Next to rectifier it passes through the transformer and provides a constant voltage to the charger. Past of the winding from transformer is taken TOP switch to generate supply. The micro controller reads the input current voltage input coming from the batter and Vref generated in the circuit. The controller generates the current reference voltage to current loop circuit by reading the inputs and adjusting the PWM in the controller according to the inputs taken.

    The project involves both hardware and software. The primary component used in the project i.e., PIC16F73 Microcontroller. has to be studied and tested. The other components are available in discrete. These components are to be assembled on the PCB board and then proper connections are to be made. Coded microcontroller i.e., PIC16F73 has to be used in order to perform the charging operation by connecting the PCB module to the system using RS-232 cable.


    (This is my Sixth Semister Mini-Project)

    A FIFO is used as a "First In-First Out" memory buffer between two asynchronous systems with simultaneous write and read access to and from the FIFO, these accesses being independent of one another. Data written into a FIFO is sequentially read out in a pipelined manner, such that the first data written into a FIFO will be the first data read out of the FIFO.

    FIFO status flag outputs are a function of the comparison of the respective write and read pointers. A FIFO will always have some status flag outputs; at least a flag that indicates the empty condition and a flag that indicates the full condition.

    An asynchronous FIFO refers to a FIFO design where data values are written to a FIFO buffer from one clock domain and the data values are read from the same FIFO buffer from another clock domain, where the two clock domains are asynchronous to each other.

    Attempting to synchronize multiple changing signals from one clock domain into a new clock domain and insuring that all changing signals are synchronized to the same clock cycle in the new clock domain has been shown to be challenging. FIFOs are used in designs to safely pass multi-bit data words from one clock domain to another. Data words are placed into a FIFO buffer memory array by control signals in one clock domain, and the data words are removed from another port of the same FIFO buffer memory array by control signals from a second clock domain. Conceptually, the task of designing a FIFO with these assumptions seems to be easy. The difficulty associated with doing FIFO design is related to generating the FIFO pointers and finding a reliable way to determine full and empty status on the FIFO.

    In this project, an asynchronous FIFO is designed to pass data between different clock domains using Gray code pointers that are synchronized into a different clock domain before testing for "FIFO full" or "FIFO empty" conditions. The design is coded in VHDL. The functional verification of design is done using ModelSim simulator from Mentor Graphics and Xilinx ISE 9.2i. The applications of FIFO are studied.


    (This is my Seventh Semister Major Project)

    In the past, cryptography helped ensure secrecy in important communications, such as those of government covert operations, military leaders, and diplomats. Cryptography has come to be in widespread use by many civilians who do not have extraordinary needs for secrecy, although typically it is transparently built into the infrastructure for computing and telecommunications.

    Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is an algorithm for performing encryption (and the reverse, decryption) which is a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. The original information is known as plaintext, and the encrypted form as cipher text. The cipher text message contains all the information of the plaintext message, but is not in a format readable by a human or computer without the proper mechanism to decrypt it; it resembles random gibberish to those not intended to read it. The encrypting procedure is varied depending on the key which changes the detailed operation of the algorithm. Without the key, the cipher cannot be used to encrypt or decrypt.

    The Rijndael is a symmetric algorithm that encrypts variable size blocks with variable size keys. . The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) specified a subset of Rijndael, fixing the block size on 128 bits. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS-197), is an approved cryptographic algorithm that can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm is a block cipher that can encrypt and decrypt digital information. The AES algorithm is capable of using cryptographic keys of 128, 192, and 256 bits, and this project implements the 128 bit standard using the VHDL, a hardware description language. The National Security Agency (NSA) announced that AES-128 may be used for classified information at the SECRET level and AES-192/256 for TOP SECRET level documents.

    The algorithm consists of four stages that make up a round which is iterated 10 times for a 128-bit length key, 12 times for a 192-bit key, and 14 times for a 256-bit key. The first stage "SubBytes" transformation is a non-linear byte substitution for each byte of the block. The second stage "ShiftRows" transformation cyclically shifts (permutes) the bytes within the block. The third stage "MixColumns" transformation groups 4-bytes together forming 4-term polynomials and multiplies the polynomials with a fixed polynomial mod (x^4+1). The fourth stage "AddRoundKey" transformation adds the round key with the block of data.

    The hardware implementation of AES could provide either high performance or low cost for specific applications. At backbone communication channels, or at heavily loaded server, it is not possible to lose processing speed running cryptography algorithms in general software, which drops the efficiency of the overall system. On the other side, a low cost and small design can be used in smart card applications, allowing a wide range of equipment to operate securely.

    The design goal of this project is to create a demonstration of the AES-128 for the end user and not for integration into a communication or data storage device; however this design could be modified to such ends. The main objective of the project is to produce an optimized VHDL code for performance purpose, capable of achieving better performance than common software implementation.

    The proposed project AES is implemented by using VHDL. The device is operated at 100.29 MHz when targeted to Spartan 3E.


    (This is the Subject of my Techinical Seminar)

    As chip densities increased, it was natural for the PLD manufacturers to evolve their products into larger (logically, but not necessarily physically) parts called Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLDs). For most practical purposes, CPLDs can be thought of as multiple PLDs (plus some programmable interconnect) in a single chip. The larger size of a CPLD allows we to implement either more logic equations or a more complicated design. In fact, these chips are large enough to replace dozens of the pesky parts.

    Because CPLDs can hold larger designs than PLDs, their potential uses are more varied. They are still sometimes used for simple applications like address decoding, but more often contain high-performance control-logic or complex finite state machines. At the high-end (in terms of numbers of gates), there is also a lot of overlap in potential applications with FPGAs. Traditionally, CPLDs have been chosen over FPGAs whenever high-performance logic is required. Because of its less flexible internal architecture, the delay through a CPLD (measured in nanoseconds) is more predictable and usually shorter.

    Altera FLEX 10K CPLD’s

    The Altera® FLEX 10K® embedded programmable logic family delivers the flexibility of traditional programmable logic together with the efficiency and density of embedded gate arrays. With its two unique logic implementation structures—the embedded array and the logic array - the FLEX 10K family revolutionized programmable architectures and brought programmable logic into the mainstream gate-array market.

    18. Design and Implementation of RC4 stream for WI-FI security

    In Cryptography the main feature is to work out with problems, which associated with secrecy, authentication and integrity. In order to handle all the cryptographic problems many kinds of cryptographic algorithms have been invented. The complexity of these problems made several categories of cryptographic algorithms. A much known is the RC4 stream cipher. The project deals with the design of RC4 stream cipher for wireless LAN security.

    The 802.11 is a wire LAN, uses a collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) mechanism together with a positive acknowledges scheme and critical carrier sense as well as physical carrier sense methods. The important part of wireless MAC layer design is the security (WEP/RC4 algorithm) implementation. The security protocol is the part of the data link layer. This protocol uses RC4 cryptographic algorithm and its intention is to prevent attempts of thefts and invasions. RC4 is the most widely-used software stream cipher and is used in popular protocols such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) (to protect Internet traffic) and WEP (to secure wireless networks) and is remarkable for its simplicity and speed in software.

    RC4 uses a variable key from 1 to 256 bytes to initialize a 256-byte array. the array is used for subsequent generation of pseudo-random bytes and then generates a pseudorandom stream, which is XORed with the plaintext/cipher text to give the cipher text/plain text. The RC4 stream cipher works in two phases the key setup phase and the pseudorandom key stream generator phase. Both phases must be performed for every new key. The primary functions are generation of 256-bytes key data from variable key length (6to16bytes), initialization of the key setup, swapping of 256-bytes between two blocks of 256 bytes (to randomize the bytes). Control and storage blocks design and implementation and key stream cipher bytes generation.



    19. PC Based data acquisition system by stimulating SPI and I2C protocol

    Many times it is required to monitor physical phenomena such as temperature, pressure humidity, light intensity, sound intensity, force, etc. Such physical phenomena can be monitored by digital systems employing sensors. However sensor generally produces a change in the resistance, voltage or current. All such phenomena can be converted in to a change in voltage levels. Since the sensors and the subsequent signal conditioning circuits provide a proportionate change in voltage with respective the phenomena, this cannot be directly interpreted by a digital system. A sensor is ussaually an analog voltage and can take any value between +10 to -10 volts. However a digital system has only two states (ON) or (OFF). Thus it is required to have additional circuitry between the digital systems and analog systems that translate the analog signals in to a digital signals. Such conversion can be perform by an analog to digital converter.

    The Serial Peripheral interface Bus or SPI (often pronounced “spy”) bus Is a synchronous serial data link standard that operates in full duplex mode. Devices communicate in master/slave mode where the master device initiates the data frame. Multiple slave devices are allowed with individual slave select (chip select) lines. The I2C bus physically consists of two active wires and a ground connection. The active wires called SDA and SCL, are both bi-directional. SDA is a serial data line, SCL is a serial clock line.

    Data Acquisition refers to reading the data continuously from any sensor. Here we are continuously monitoring the data through PC. We are concentrating mostly on serial communication. The data which we are receiving from the sensor is received by the micro controller using ADC. We need to monitor this data on the PC and on the LCD, In order to send the data we are using serial communication. We get the information like Date and Time with our data. The buzzer rings when the temperature reaches a critical temperature of 35degrees centigrade.

    The data that is stored in PC is easier to monitor are retrieve at any time compared to storing in a particular memory. Now a days we are using the same process as storing the data in the PC in any kind of industry.


    If the passenger has some residual vision, they may see outlines of useful landmarks that indicate the approach to their bus stop. The near or totally blind rely on identifying directional changes that the bus makes to find their bus stop. Seeking confirmation from a fellow passenger or from the driver is another alternative although it does require a lot of confidence to do this.

    Keeping in mind these problems, this system has been planned to facilitate a blind person or a person new to the area who doesn’t have knowledge on bus stop information.

    This system has a transmitter at every bus stop which continuously transmitting a unique ID .Bus contains a main unit which receives transmitted ID and indicates the passengers the arrived stop.

    Transmitter unit comprises of a Microcontroller (AT89c51) unit which generates a unique bus stop ID for every bus stop and multiple transmitter units. IRED to transmit the code. Receiver unit comprises of IR receiver (TSOP1738) to detect and demodulate the transmitted code which is detected by the microcontroller and indication is produced.

    I will keep updating this page with more abstracts. Keep checking them. And don’t ask me for Documentation and coding. I can just point you in the right direction. And a little googling goes a long way too.

    Hope this helps.


    Asish said...

    AA photo naa mini project kit loni microprocessor de kada??

    Anonymous said...

    I recently came across your blog and have been following it. I'm very impressed. You're truly well informed and very intelligent. You've been able to write in a way people can understand easily. I'm saving this for future use.
    liferay training in hyderabad

    Inverter Battery Dealers in Hyderabad said...

    Inverter Battery Dealers in Hyderabad, If you want top dealers list visit our site.

    Unknown said...

    yes, thank y very much for this article, it's very useful for me, because, I'm writing a dissertation work and , if y don't mind, I want to use some of your information.
    Thx again.
    security online

    Anonymous said...

    we are offering best liferay online training with job support and high quality training facilities and well expert faculty . to Register you free demo please visit
    liferay training in hyderabad